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Tax Guide If You Are Leaving the UK to Live Abroad

Tax Guide If You Are Leaving the UK to Live Abroad


If you’re in the process of departing from the UK or have relocated within the past four tax years, there’s a high likelihood that you are eligible for a tax refund related to leaving the UK. Our free UK tax back calculator serves as a valuable tool, allowing you to estimate the potential amount of your UK tax refund. Navigate through HMRC’s system with ease by referring to our comprehensive leaving the UK tax back guide, designed to provide insights into the relevant considerations and steps applicable to your specific situation.

Who is Eligible for Claiming tax back?

Eligibility to claim a UK tax rebate is open to individuals who have been employed under PAYE and have departed from the UK within the last four tax years. To qualify, you must have earned sufficient income to be liable for income tax in the year for which you are making the refund claim. It’s crucial to bear in mind that while HMRC is committed to refunding eligible individuals, the onus is on you to submit a claim to retrieve the funds owed to you.

How you might be eligible to claim the UK tax back?

There are various reasons why you might be eligible for a leaving the UK tax refund, including:

  1. Personal Allowance: If you haven’t utilized the entire Personal Allowance in the tax year of your departure.
  2. Job Expenses: Numerous work-related expenses may not have been claimed before leaving, such as purchasing work equipment, maintaining your uniform, or being a member of a Trade Union.
  3. Tax Codes: If you had an incorrect tax code during any of the years covered by your claim.
  4. Non-Resident Status: Having non-resident status or being a non-resident landlord of property in the UK.
  5. Paying UK Tax on Pension Income: If you are paying UK tax on pension income from the UK.
  6. Employment in Another Country: If you remain a UK taxpayer but are employed in another country.

Our collection of free income tax guides is a valuable resource to deepen your understanding of the available tax relief options and navigate the complexities of tax regulations.

Timescales for claiming a leaving the UK tax refund

Understanding the timescales for claiming a leaving the UK tax refund is crucial, as adherence to the stipulated rules is imperative. Failing to claim what is rightfully owed before the deadline results in the forfeiture of any potential refund.

Individuals departing the UK have a window of four tax years to initiate a claim for a UK tax refund, beginning from the tax year in which they leave. It is essential to note that the tax office requires the submission of an official claim within this four-year timescale to facilitate the refund process for any overpaid income tax. Strict adherence to these timescales ensures that individuals can access the funds they are entitled to without the risk of losing out on any owed money.

Is leaving the UK tax back necessary if you have submitted the self-assessment tax return?

If you’re required to complete a self-assessment tax return in the UK, HMRC may request it for various reasons. In such cases, fulfilling your final tax return in the UK is essential to facilitate the potential refund of any overpaid tax. Form P85 is not necessary if you undergo the process of completing a tax return, as this document ensures HMRC has all the requisite information to process the refund for any overpaid income tax.

It’s crucial to note that a tax return can only be submitted after the conclusion of the current tax year, which occurs on the 5th of April each year. Consequently, if you leave the UK during a current tax year, you must wait until after the 5th of April to submit your tax return to HMRC. This timeline ensures the accurate and timely processing of your tax return, allowing for the potential refund of any excess income tax payments.

Amount of leaving UK tax back you can claim?

The amount of UK tax you can claim back has no upper limit. The potential refund is contingent on various factors, including the amount of tax you paid in the UK and other sources of income you may have had. The specific circumstances of your time in the UK play a crucial role in determining the extent of the reclaimable tax.

For individuals leaving the UK, it is common to be eligible for a repayment of income tax exclusively from the tax year in which they depart. In such cases, the entitlement typically revolves around the difference between the actual tax paid during that tax year and the hypothetical figure you would have paid if you had worked for the entire year. The personalised nature of these calculations underscores the importance of considering individual circumstances when determining the potential amount of UK tax that can be claimed back.

The process to claim the UK tax back

To initiate your leaving the UK tax back claim using the P85 form, it is essential to follow a few key steps and have the necessary forms in place:

  1. P85 Form: The P85 form is a vital document containing details such as your departure date from the UK, your residency status, and your employment situation abroad. You can conveniently complete and submit the P85 form online or send it by post to the tax office.
  2. UK Tax Return: If you are completing a UK tax return, the P85 form may not be required. Generally, if you are obligated to undertake a UK self-assessment tax return, HMRC may not typically request a P85.
  3. P45 Form: Your last UK employer will provide you with a P45 form upon leaving their employment. While having a P45 expedites the process, a claim is still possible without it, although it may take HMRC additional time to finalize.
  4. National Insurance Number: Your national insurance number, visible on payslips and tax forms like the P45, is a unique identifier. Although a claim is feasible without a national insurance number, alternative information must be available.

Whether you are on the brink of departure or have resettled in the past, navigating the claims process can be complex, especially when considering time differences. Fortunately, the P85 claim can typically be completed online, offering a swift and straightforward method. In cases where online submission is not feasible, postal submission remains an alternative option to ensure the completion of your leaving the UK tax-back claim.

Form P87 and leaving the UK tax refund

The P87 form comes into play when you need to claim tax back for employment expenses in the context of your leaving the UK tax refund. It is essential to note that the P87 should be completed separately from the P85 form. Once completed, the P87 can be submitted either online or by post directly to HMRC.

The processing of the P87 follows a distinct route from the P85 and may take varying timescales to complete, contingent upon the nature of the expenses outlined in your claim. Upon receipt of your P87, the tax office will meticulously review the details and, if necessary, pose any inquiries, typically in written form. This ensures a thorough assessment before calculating any potential overpayment of income tax related to employment expenses. The separate handling of the P87 underscores its specific role in facilitating claims for employment-related tax refunds within the leaving the UK context.

P800 form and how to get paid leaving the UK tax refund

Upon the calculation of any overpaid tax, the tax office will issue a P800 form, providing a detailed breakdown of how your refund has been calculated. This form will be sent to the address they have on record, and if you have a personal tax account, the breakdown should also be accessible within it.

When using the P85 form, you have the opportunity to indicate your preferred method of receiving the tax refund. Options include a bank transfer to a UK bank account or receiving a cheque.

In cases where you do not possess a personal UK bank account, you have the option to nominate someone else to receive the tax refund on your behalf. This flexibility ensures that individuals have choices tailored to their preferences and circumstances when it comes to receiving their UK tax refund.

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Making Tax Digital in UK

Everything About Making Tax Digital in the UK?


Are you familiar with Making Tax Digital, often abbreviated as ‘MTD’? Essentially, MTD constitutes the government’s strategic initiative to transition towards a fully digital tax system, aiming to enhance the ease with which individuals and businesses manage their tax obligations and stay in control of their financial affairs. However, MTD encompasses more than simply shifting the process of filing your self-assessment tax return from manual to online.

A substantial component of MTD revolves around the imperative to maintain a digital record of your accounts. As this initiative comes into full effect, compliance will necessitate the utilization of reputable third-party accounting software to seamlessly submit your tax return. The announcement of MTD’s phased implementation was made in 2017, with the initial rollout scheduled for April 2019. Now, with the recent commencement of the next phase in April 2022, it becomes crucial to delve into the specifics of what MTD entails and why it holds significance in the realm of taxation and financial management.

Taxpayers who are affected by MTD?

The impact of Making Tax Digital (MTD) extends to millions of taxpayers, encompassing a broad spectrum of businesses, self-employed individuals, sole traders, and those operating through limited companies. This comprehensive initiative signifies a significant shift in the way taxation is managed and reported, with its reach extending across various sectors and professional structures. As MTD continues to be implemented, it becomes imperative for a diverse range of entities and individuals to adapt to the digital landscape, ensuring compliance with the evolving tax framework.

What are the timelines for MTD rolling out?

The inception of Making Tax Digital (MTD) commenced with the first phase in April 2019, followed by another significant phase in April 2022. Looking ahead, additional phases are scheduled to be progressively introduced in the coming years. This phased approach to implementation reflects the deliberate strategy employed by the government to integrate MTD into the tax system gradually. As businesses and individuals navigate these timelines, it becomes crucial to stay informed about the specific requirements and implications associated with each phase of MTD.

MTD for VAT businesses

Phase one of Making Tax Digital (MTD) was dedicated to MTD for VAT. This entailed a significant shift for businesses registered for VAT and having a taxable turnover exceeding £85,000 (the VAT threshold). Under MTD for VAT, these businesses are required to maintain digital records of their accounts and employ specific software for the submission of their VAT returns.

Until April 2022, businesses with a turnover below the VAT threshold had the option to adopt MTD voluntarily. However, as of April 2022, compliance with MTD for VAT has become mandatory for businesses falling under the VAT threshold. This evolution in the MTD framework underscores the government’s commitment to a comprehensive and digitalized approach to VAT reporting and signifies a critical milestone in the ongoing progression of Making Tax Digital.

MTD for Income Tax

Commencing from April 2024, Making Tax Digital (MTD) will extend its application to encompass the self-employed and landlords with an annual income surpassing £10,000. If you fall into this category, adherence to MTD regulations will necessitate the maintenance of digital records, followed by the electronic filing of your accounts and self-assessment returns.

For those involved as partners in a business, compliance with MTD rules becomes obligatory starting from April 2025. This marks a pivotal moment for partners, as the government seeks to progressively integrate digital processes into income tax reporting.

As of now, the government has yet to stipulate a specific date for when limited liability partnerships (LLPs) and partnerships with corporate partners will be mandated to adopt MTD rules. Rest assured, we will keep you updated as soon as this information is announced, ensuring you remain informed about the evolving landscape of Making Tax Digital.

MTD for Corporation Tax

Following the implementation of Making Tax Digital (MTD) for Income Tax, the anticipated next phase is MTD for Corporation Tax. Although not officially confirmed, the government plans to offer businesses the opportunity to participate in a pilot program for MTD for Corporation Tax. This significant development is projected to take effect in April 2026, indicating the government’s commitment to gradually expanding the scope of digital tax reporting to include Corporation Tax. As the specifics of MTD for Corporation Tax unfold, businesses are encouraged to stay informed about potential changes in the tax reporting landscape.

HMRC-compatible third-party software for MTD

The advent of Making Tax Digital (MTD) signifies a shift towards a future where all taxpayers will be required to utilise third-party software for the submission of their tax returns. Essential to this process is the compatibility of the software with HMRC’s technology. Recognized software providers such as FreeAgent and Sage have integrated their systems to align seamlessly with HMRC’s requirements. For a comprehensive overview of compatible software, HMRC has provided an official list, ensuring that taxpayers have access to a range of options that meet the necessary standards for digital tax reporting.

Are CIS workers impacted by MTD?

In the foreseeable future, Making Tax Digital (MTD) is slated to extend its application to encompass individuals who complete a self-assessment, and this includes Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) workers. As MTD unfolds, CIS workers should remain vigilant and stay informed about the evolving requirements.

For those VAT registered, adherence to MTD rules becomes crucial when filing quarterly VAT returns. It is imperative to ensure compliance with the specified digital processes in line with MTD regulations.

If you are not VAT registered, you have until April 2024 before the MTD framework is fully implemented as part of the gradual roll-out of MTD for Income Tax Self-Assessment (ITSA). This timeframe allows non-VAT registered CIS workers to prepare for the upcoming changes and transition seamlessly into the digital tax reporting landscape.


In summary, the government is actively working towards a fully paperless tax system through the implementation of Making Tax Digital (MTD). Even if MTD hasn’t directly impacted you at present, it’s wise for CIS workers to consider future-proofing their business by staying informed and prepared for potential changes on the horizon.

For those seeking to optimize their tax rebate, we invite you to get in touch. Give us a call at 0161 464 6067, or simply contact us on our website. Our team is ready to assist you in navigating the evolving landscape of tax regulations and ensuring you make the most out of your financial arrangements.


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Keeping Records for Tax Purposes

Definitive Guide to Keeping Records for Tax Purposes in the UK


Understanding the types of records required for tax purposes is crucial to ensuring a smooth process. The records you need will vary based on the complexity of your claims. Effective tax record-keeping is a cornerstone of financial management, ensuring a seamless process when making claims. The records are necessary for your tax affairs hinge on the volume and intricacy of your claims, broadly falling into two categories.

  • Documents Received or Signed

Maintaining records involves documents either signed by you or provided by others. These may include:

  • Court orders or legally binding maintenance agreements, particularly relevant for those born before 6 April 1935.
  • Forms EIS3 or EIS5, applicable when subscribing to the Enterprise Investment Scheme.
  • Gift Aid payments.
  • Personal pension plan certificates.

Additionally, it’s prudent to retain duplicates of essential documents such as:

  • Birth certificates, especially when age is a determining factor.
  • Marriage certificates, crucial for claiming Married Couple’s Allowance (only for individuals born before 6 April 1935).
  • Certificates confirming the death of your partner or spouse if applying for Bereavement Allowance.
  • Notification of your status as a registered blind person.
  • Personal Financial Records

Effective tax claims necessitate well-maintained personal financial records, providing substantiation for amounts expended. Notable examples of records supporting such claims encompass:

  • Bank statements and cheque stubs.
  • Money order counterfoils.
  • Certificates detailing loan interest paid.
  • Receipts or other documentation indicating dates and amounts of payments made.

Furthermore, it is imperative to retain records supporting claims aimed at mitigating liability based on non-residence or non-domicile. For guidance on residence, domicile, and the remittance basis, refer to

The types of records beneficial for such claims include:

  • Records of living overseas and travelling to and from the UK, especially if claiming non-residence or non-ordinary residence.
  • Employment documents like contracts or letters of assignment for those asserting non-domicile status, supported by evidence demonstrating the permanent home country.

Regarding income, benefits in kind, and expense payments from employment, maintain records such as:

  • P60 certificates received from your employer after 5 April, detailing pay and tax deductions.
  • Any P45 Part 1A received upon leaving a job.
  • P46(Pen) provided upon retirement and transition to a pension from a former employer.
  • Annual pension statements from your payer.
  • Payslips or pay statements, including certificates or proof of foreign tax payments on employment income.
  • P11D or P9D forms, or equivalent information from all employers throughout the year, indicating benefits in kind and expenses payments.
  • Information on share options, exercised or awarded, and any share participation arrangements.
  • Detailed notes on tips, gratuities, and other taxable receipts or benefits not included in wages, recorded regularly for accuracy.
  • Certificates related to Taxed Award Schemes participation.
  • Information from entities other than your employer providing benefits in kind related to employment.
  • Details about any redundancy or termination payments.

Additionally, it is advisable to retain forms P2 and P2X (PAYE Coding Notices) to facilitate tracking of earlier tax underpayments collected through PAYE.

Claiming Expenses in Employment or Reducing Benefits in Kind

When asserting expenses against your earnings or seeking reductions in benefits calculated by your employer, maintaining meticulous records is crucial for substantiating your claims. These records should encompass comprehensive details, including:

  • Mileage Details: Keep a detailed log that includes dates, trip information, and the business miles travelled. This is particularly important for claiming mileage-related expenses.
  • Additional Costs: Record any supplementary costs incurred, such as parking fees or toll charges. These details further support the validity of your claim.
  • Foreign Travel Itineraries: If your expenses involve foreign travel, maintaining detailed itineraries is essential. This provides a clear overview of your travel activities and their relevance to your claim.
  • Payment Records: Retain all relevant proof of payment records, including receipts, vouchers, credit card statements, and other documentation. Bank statements and cheque stubs can serve as valuable evidence of your expenditure.
  • Purchase Records and Leasing Agreements: If your claim involves equipment, such as a computer, maintain records of purchase and leasing agreements. These documents substantiate your claims against your employment income, offering a transparent overview of the expenses incurred.

Managing Unavailable or Unretainable Expense Evidence

In situations where obtaining evidence, particularly receipts for small cash expenses, proves challenging, a proactive approach becomes imperative. If you find yourself without proof, follow these guidelines:

  • Create a Brief Note: Promptly generate a concise note detailing the amount spent, the date of expenditure, and the purpose. This compensates for the absence of a formal receipt, offering a record of the transaction.
  • Submission of Receipts: Should you eventually acquire a receipt or alternative evidence; your employer might require it for expense reimbursement or to calculate associated benefits. However, retaining the broader details of these expenses is equally essential. This ensures you can complete your expense claim and furnish supporting information if your tax return undergoes scrutiny.
  • No Need for Photocopies: While keeping photocopies of bills is not mandatory, maintaining your comprehensive records is crucial. Any investigations into your tax return can typically be addressed by presenting your original records, alleviating the need for unnecessary photocopies.

This approach ensures your compliance with necessary documentation requirements, providing a robust foundation for your claims.

Utilizing Your Vehicle for Business Travel

When opting for your own vehicle, be it a car, van, motorcycle, or cycle, for business-related journeys, it’s essential to understand the implications and the necessary record-keeping:

  • Business Mileage Expenses: You’re eligible to receive expenses for business mileage at specified rates without incurring any tax liability.
  • Excess Payments and Taxation: If you receive payments surpassing the specified rates, the excess becomes subject to taxation. Your employer is responsible for notifying your HMRC office about such instances.
  • Claiming Relief – Mileage Allowance Relief: In scenarios where you receive payments below the specified rates or nothing at all, you can claim relief up to the specified rates. This relief, known as Mileage Allowance Relief, serves to offset any financial disparity. Visit for the latest Mileage Allowance Relief rates.
  • Maintaining Business Mileage Records: It’s crucial to keep meticulous records of the business miles covered and the corresponding expenses you’ve been paid. This documentation serves as essential evidence for accurate claims.
  • Recording Other Motoring Expenses: In addition to mileage expenses, maintain records of any other motoring expenses incurred, such as parking fees or tolls. These records are indispensable when claiming deductions for these specific expenses.

With these guidelines, you ensure compliance with tax regulations related to your business travel.

Utilizing Your Home for Business Purposes

If you’ve designated a section of your home for work-related activities, it’s imperative to maintain thorough records to substantiate the allocation of heating and lighting costs between employment and private use. The following guidelines are crucial in this context:

  • Obligation to Work from Home: Simply choosing to work from home is insufficient; there must be an obligation imposed by your employer for you to claim additional costs. This distinction is vital in determining the legitimacy of your claim.
  • Record-Keeping for Heating and Lighting Costs: Keep comprehensive records that delineate the portion of heating and lighting costs attributed to employment-related activities versus private use. This meticulous documentation ensures transparency and accuracy in your claims.
  • Allowable Proportion Determination: The allowable proportion is contingent upon the number of rooms in your home and the extent to which they are utilised for work purposes. This determination is pivotal in establishing a fair and justified allocation of costs.

By adhering to these guidelines, you uphold the necessary standards for claiming additional costs related to home-based work and usage of your home for business activities.

Comprehensive Record-Keeping for Varied Expenses and Income

Maintaining meticulous records is indispensable, particularly when it comes to supporting various expense claims and managing income. The nature of the records you need to keep varies, but here is a comprehensive guide to ensure you stay on top of your financial documentation:

  1. State Pension and Other Benefits:
    • Retain details from the Department for Work and Pensions regarding State Pension, taxable state benefits, and various allowances.
    • Keep Form P60, providing details of your occupational pension, including the amount and tax deducted.
  2. Savings and Investments:
    • Archive bank and building society statements, showcasing your financial transactions.
    • Document statements of interest and income from savings and investments, such as annuity investments.
    • Preserve tax deduction certificates from your bank and dividend vouchers from UK companies.
  3. Shares and Share Options:
    • For individuals holding shares or share options due to employment or directorial positions:
      • Record share purchase details, market values, and alterations in rights or restrictions.
      • Keep correspondence related to share transactions, share option certificates, and any benefits received as an employee shareholder.
  4. Other UK or Foreign Income:
    • Depending on your income sources, maintain records such as agreements for freelance income, dividend counterfoils, and personal financial records.
    • Archive certificates or evidence of tax deducted in the UK or foreign countries.
  5. Asset Transactions:
    • Keep contracts for the purchase, sale, lease, or exchange of assets.
    • Document details of assets acquired as gifts or inheritance, along with any valuations considered in gain or loss calculations.
    • Retain evidence of payment records, including bills, invoices, bank statements, and cheque stubs.
  6. Business and Private Asset Usage:
    • For assets used for both business and private purposes, keep records to determine taxable proportions when disposed of.
    • Document correspondence with vendors or purchasers during asset transactions.
  7. Tax Return and VAT Records:
    • Establish a systematic record-keeping system for your business.
    • Regularly maintain and update records throughout the year.
    • Keep records for the necessary duration, considering legal requirements.
  8. Setting Up and Maintaining Records:
    • Initiate a robust record-keeping system for all income, expenses, sales, and purchases associated with your business or trade.
    • Seek assistance in setting up a system at

Effective Business Record-Keeping Practices

Maintaining accurate records is paramount for the smooth functioning of any business. To ensure compliance and facilitate efficient financial management, consider the following guidelines:

  1. Sales and Business Receipts:

    • Record all sales and business receipts promptly as they occur.
    • Keep supporting records, such as invoices, bank statements, and paying-in slips, to provide a clear trail of income sources.
  2. Purchases and Expenses:

    • Document all purchases and expenses in a timely manner.
    • Retain invoices for purchases, except for negligible amounts.
  3. Assets Transactions:

    • Keep a comprehensive record of all purchases and sales involving assets used in your business.
  4. Personal Use Transactions:

    • Record all amounts withdrawn from the business bank account or in cash for personal or family use.
    • Document any amounts injected into the business from personal funds, like life assurance policy proceeds.
  5. Sales Inclusions:

    • Be aware that sales encompass:
      • Goods taken from stock for personal or family consumption, not paid for in cash.
      • Goods or services exchanged with others (barter transactions).
    • Even if not recorded through a till, create a record at the transaction time, detailing the goods involved and their retail selling price.

Effective Financial Documentation for Business Operations

Maintaining detailed records of financial transactions is imperative for the smooth operation of any business. Here are specific guidelines for managing various aspects of your business finances:

Bank and Building Society Accounts:

  • Preserve all bank and building society statements and passbooks related to accounts receiving or disbursing funds for your business.
  • If a dedicated business bank account is absent, meticulously record which transactions are personal and which are business-related.
  • Consider having a separate business account, especially for businesses with a higher transaction volume.

Personal Drawings:

  • Document any funds withdrawn for personal use from:
    • Business cash.
    • The business bank account.
    • Your personal bank account in the absence of a dedicated business account.
  • If using cheques, maintain a cheque stub entry to signify withdrawals for personal purposes.

Private Funds in Business:

  • Keep a clear record of any private funds injected into the business, specifying the source (e.g., legacy, bank loan, friends, family, or life assurance policy proceeds).

Stock and Work in Progress:

  • Conduct a thorough stocktaking exercise at the end of your accounting year to:
    • Identify the costs associated with stock and work in progress.
    • Document these costs systematically.
  • Professional stocktakers can assist in this process; retain and archive their reports.

These practices provide a comprehensive financial history for informed decision-making.

Effective Documentation for Payroll and Business Transactions

For businesses, maintaining meticulous records is not limited to financial transactions alone; it extends to payments to employees, subcontractors in the construction industry, and the use of record books. Here’s a detailed guide to ensure comprehensive record-keeping:

Payments to Employees:

  • As an employer, it’s crucial to retain records supporting deductions for wages, payments, benefits, and related items for your employees.
  • Access additional guidance on maintaining records related to employee payments at HMRC’s official website.
  • Be prepared for compliance checks, during which HMRC may request to review these records. More information on compliance checks can be found here.

Payments to Subcontractors in the Construction Industry:

  • If your business involves payments to subcontractors, detailed records are necessary. Refer to the CIS340 Construction Industry Scheme Guide for comprehensive details on this process.

Using Record Books or Spreadsheets:

  • The choice of record-keeping tools depends on your business’s nature and size. For most businesses, maintaining a cash book (summarizing all bank account entries, cash receipts, payments, and drawings) and a petty cash book is advisable.
  • Larger businesses may require additional account books, and your accountant or HMRC can provide guidance on specific needs.
  • Regularly updating record books is crucial. Whether it’s a petty cash transaction or a bank entry, prompt recording facilitates accurate financial management.

Expenditure without Back-Up Evidence:

  • All business expenditures should be supported by bills or other tangible evidence. In rare cases where receipts for small cash expenses are unavailable (e.g., taxi fares or tips), promptly document the amount spent and the purpose.


In conclusion, meticulous record-keeping is not merely a legal obligation but a fundamental practice for effective tax management. Maintaining meticulous records is vital for fulfilling tax obligations. The provided guide covers a comprehensive range of records required for different aspects of personal and business taxation. Regularly updating and organising these records is not only a compliance necessity but a proactive approach to efficient financial management. For further guidance, visit the HMRC Record-Keeping resource. Remember, mastering the art of record keeping is an investment in the financial health of your personal and business endeavours.

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Taxes for Accidental Landlord

Navigating the Tax Landscape as an Accidental Landlord in the UK

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Becoming an Accidental Landlord
  • Registering for Self Assessment
  • What Records Must Landlords Keep?
  • What Tax Do Landlords Pay?
  • Allowable Expenses for Landlords
  • Can You Claim Property Allowance?
  • Conclusion



Life often leads us down unexpected paths, and sometimes, you may find yourself in a situation where you need to become an ‘accidental landlord.’ This can happen when you inherit a property sooner than expected or when your job requires you to move, but your current home won’t sell. While becoming an accidental landlord can help cover your mortgage payments, it also comes with important tax implications that you need to understand. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the tax implications for accidental landlords in the UK, providing you with the knowledge you need to navigate this situation effectively.

Becoming an Accidental Landlord

Accidental landlords have become increasingly common in the UK. This situation may arise when individuals face circumstances like needing to relocate for a new job, joining households with a partner, downsizing, or inheriting a family property they can’t or don’t want to sell. Renting out your property can provide you with additional income to rent or purchase another property. However, it’s essential to grasp the key tax facts to optimize your returns in this role.

Registering for Self Assessment

As a private landlord in the UK, you are required to pay Income Tax on your rental property profits. These profits are the amount left after deducting allowable expenses as defined by HMRC from your total rental income. Your tax liability depends on the size of your net profit and your personal financial and tax circumstances. If your annual rental income exceeds £2,500 after allowable expense deductions or £10,000 before deductions, you must report your profits through a Self Assessment tax return (SA100) and pay the subsequent Income Tax bill.

To begin this process, you must register for Self Assessment if you did not submit a Self Assessment tax return the previous year. Registration is free, quick, and can be done online. However, different rules apply if you’ve previously registered for Self Assessment. Failing to register before renting out your property can result in penalties, so it’s crucial to adhere to the registration deadlines.

What Records Must Landlords Keep?

Accurate financial records are essential for landlords. These records should detail the rent you receive and the expenses you incur in managing and maintaining your property. Using accounting software is highly recommended as it streamlines the process of completing your Self Assessment tax return (SA100) at the end of the tax year.

It’s vital to retain receipts, invoices, and bank statements to substantiate your expenses, as HMRC may request proof. Additionally, keeping a log of mileage for trips related to property management can be claimed as an allowable expense. These records must be maintained for six years, and inaccuracies, incompleteness, or loss of records can lead to fines.

What Tax Do Landlords Pay?

The standard Personal Allowance in England and Wales is £12,570 if your annual earnings are below £100,000. You can earn up to £12,570 tax-free, with slight variations if you claim a Marriage Allowance or Blind Person’s Allowance. Tax rates differ in Scotland.

  • Personal Allowance: Up to £12,570, Tax Rate: 0%
  • Basic Rate: £12,571 to £50,270, Tax Rate: 20%
  • Higher Rate: £50,271 to £125,140, Tax Rate: 40%
  • Additional Rate: Over £125,140, Tax Rate: 45%

Allowable Expenses for Landlords

To qualify as allowable expenses, costs must be “wholly and exclusively” for renting out your property, and personal expenses are not eligible. Some examples of allowable expenses include:

  • Property maintenance and repairs (e.g., roof repairs, boiler replacements)
  • Redecorating between tenancies
  • Insurance (building, contents, public liability)
  • Gardening and cleaning services
  • Agent fees and management fees
  • Legal fees for lets lasting a year or less
  • Accountancy fees
  • Direct costs (e.g., phone calls, stationery, advertising for new tenants)
  • Vehicle costs (proportion used for your rental business)
  • Mortgage interest payments

It’s important to note that property improvements, such as replacing carpet with laminate flooring, and mortgage capital repayments are not eligible for claims.

Can You Claim a Property Allowance?

Property allowance is a tax exemption of up to £1,000 a year for individuals earning income from land or property. If you jointly own property with others, each owner is eligible for a £1,000 property allowance against their share of the gross rental income. Additionally, you may be able to claim allowances for replacing residential rental property domestic items, such as furniture, furnishings, household appliances, and kitchenware.

For those new to renting out property, seeking advice from a qualified professional can be invaluable. It can help you maximize your returns while minimizing any tax-related issues.


Becoming an accidental landlord can provide you with an additional income source, but it also brings tax responsibilities. To ensure that you make the most of your rental property and stay compliant with tax regulations, it’s essential to register for Self Assessment, maintain accurate financial records, understand your tax obligations, and claim allowable expenses where applicable. By following these guidelines, you can navigate the world of accidental landlordship effectively and make informed decisions regarding your rental property.

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Self Assessment for Self-Employed Comprehensive-Guide

Self Assessment for Self-Employed Individuals: A Comprehensive Guide

In the world of self-employment, managing your finances can be a complex task. One crucial aspect is filing your Self Assessment tax return. If you’re a self-employed individual, this article is your comprehensive guide to understanding the ins and outs of Self Assessment, who needs to submit it, how it works, and crucial deadlines. So, let’s dive right in.

Table of Contents

  1. Do I need to complete a Self Assessment if I’m self-employed?
  2. How does Self Assessment work for self-employed people?
  3. Do self-employed people need to send a tax return if they make a loss?
  4. When should I sign up as self-employed?
  5. When should I submit my Self Assessment tax return?
  6. Who has to complete a Self Assessment tax return?
  7. What is Self Assessment?
  8. Can I ever get out of Self Assessment once I am in it?


Do I need to complete a Self Assessment if I’m self-employed?

Determining Your Obligation

Self-employed individuals need to submit a Self Assessment tax return if they earn income through self-employment. This includes sole traders and freelancers. The threshold for self-assessment is if you earn more than £1,000 from self-employment during a tax year (from 6th April to 5th April). If your income falls below the £1,000 trading allowance, you won’t need to register for Self Assessment.

Additional Employment

Even if you also work for an employer in addition to being self-employed, you still need to register for Self Assessment if your self-employed income exceeds £1,000. This is because your employer will only report your employment-related earnings to HMRC, and it’s your responsibility to inform HMRC about your self-employment income.

How does Self Assessment work for self-employed people?

Reporting Your Income

While employees have their taxes and National Insurance contributions automatically managed by their employers, self-employed individuals must report their income themselves. Your Self Assessment tax return should include details of all income sources during the tax year, which encompasses earnings from your self-employment and any income you receive from an employer.

What HMRC Wants to Know

Declaring all your income ensures that HMRC can determine various important factors:

  • What you earned
  • How you earned it
  • Any tax relief you might be eligible for (like claiming allowable expenses)
  • Any tax you’ve already paid to prevent double taxation

Do self-employed people need to send a tax return if they make a loss?

Yes, even if your self-employment results in a loss or your earnings are below the trading allowance, you are still obligated to submit a Self Assessment tax return. Failure to do so when expected by HMRC can result in penalties, so it’s crucial to meet your filing requirements.

When should I sign up as self-employed?

Registration Deadline

For individuals who start their self-employment journey, the deadline for registering as a self-employed sole trader is the 5th of October following the end of the tax year in which you began trading. To illustrate, if you started your self-employment venture in August 2023, which falls within the 2023/24 tax year, you must register for Self Assessment by no later than the 5th of October 2024.

How to Register

Registering for Self Assessment doesn’t occur automatically; you must take the initiative. Fortunately, you can easily sign up online, or you can contact HMRC through their Self Assessment Helpline at 0845 900 0444.

When should I submit my Self Assessment tax return?

Filing Deadlines

The deadline for submitting your Self Assessment tax return depends on your chosen method of submission:

  • If filing by post, submit your paper tax return form by the 31st of October.
  • For online submissions, the deadline is the 31st of January following the end of the tax year it pertains to.
  • If you’re submitting online and wish to have HMRC collect what you owe through your tax code, the deadline is the 30th of December.

It’s important to note that you don’t have to wait until the deadline to submit your tax return. You can file it as soon as the tax year ends, giving you ample time to ensure accuracy and to settle your tax bill.

Who has to complete a Self Assessment tax return?

Understanding the Obligation

Self Assessment is not exclusive to self-employed individuals. Various groups of taxpayers are required to complete a tax return, and it’s essential to determine your specific obligations. Here are the key areas to explore:

  1. What is Self Assessment?
  2. What are the important Self Assessment deadlines and dates?
  3. How does Self Assessment work if I am an employee and I have foreign income or gains?


What is Self Assessment?

Under the Self Assessment system, certain taxpayers must complete a tax return (referred to as form SA100) each year. This return requires you to disclose all sources of income and capital gains while claiming applicable allowances and reliefs. A tax return is a legally binding document, and it’s vital to report all sources of income, regardless of their size, unless they are below £1 or have had tax deducted at the source.

What are the important Self Assessment deadlines and dates?

For detailed information regarding the deadlines for submitting your Self Assessment tax returns and making income tax and National Insurance contributions (NIC) payments, please refer to our dedicated page titled “When to Submit Your Self Assessment and Make Payments.

It’s crucial to understand that there are automatic interest charges and penalties in place for failing to meet the deadlines for tax return submission and tax payment. HMRC has implemented a penalty system for late-filed tax returns, even if you find yourself in a situation where you owe no tax or are entitled to a refund. Being aware of these deadlines and the associated consequences is essential to ensure your compliance with tax obligations.

How does Self Assessment work if I am an employee and I have foreign income or gains?

In the United Kingdom, some migrants must complete an annual formal tax return, even if they are not self-employed and have their employment taxes managed under the PAYE system. This requirement primarily applies to individuals who are tax residents in the UK and have foreign income and gains.

To determine your specific tax obligations, you can refer to the “Do I have to complete a tax return?” section on our residence and domicile pages, which provides comprehensive guidance on whether a tax return is necessary based on your circumstances.

In terms of record-keeping, the extent and nature of the records you need to maintain will vary according to your individual situation. You may be required to keep records and comments that support your residence or domicile status, document information regarding your foreign income and gains, and maintain detailed records if you utilize the remittance basis of taxation, which may include bank statements.

It’s essential to store these records securely for at least 22 months from the conclusion of the tax year. For instance, for the tax year 2022/23, which concludes on 5th April 2023, you must retain your records until at least 31st January 2025 to meet your tax compliance requirements.

Can I ever get out of Self Assessment once I am in it?

If you’ve been issued a notice to file a tax return and believe you no longer need to do so, you can contact HMRC to request withdrawal from the Self Assessment system. It’s crucial to understand that you have a legal obligation to complete a tax return until HMRC formally withdraws the notice, even if you no longer meet the Self Assessment criteria. If you cease self-employment or leave the UK, you should fill in a tax return for the year your self-employment ends or the year of your departure. This will enable HMRC to close your Self Assessment record and cease sending you tax return requests. Always ensure HMRC has your correct contact information, even if you’ve moved abroad.


In conclusion, Self Assessment is a vital process for self-employed individuals, and compliance with filing requirements is essential to avoid penalties and legal consequences. Understanding when and how to register, what to report, and meeting deadlines will ensure you navigate the Self Assessment system smoothly and fulfil your tax obligations. Stay informed, take timely action, and you’ll find Self Assessment to be a manageable task in your self-employment journey.


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Financial Partners in Oldham

Start a Successful Future with Your Financial Partners in Oldham

In today’s dynamic business landscape, the role of local accountants in Oldham has evolved far beyond crunching numbers. These financial wizards are your strategic financial partners in achieving fiscal success. Here, we delve into the pivotal role that local accountants play in your business and financial life.

Navigating the Financial Maze with Local Accountants

When it comes to managing your finances, you need a dependable partner by your side. Local accountants in Oldham City are not just bean counters but the navigators who help you steer your financial ship through treacherous waters towards the shores of prosperity.

Expertise at Your Service

Local accountants bring a wealth of expertise to the table. With their in-depth knowledge of tax regulations, financial planning, and business strategy, they are your go-to advisors. They ensure that your financial affairs are not just compliant and they are also optimized for maximum benefit.

Personalized Financial Solutions

One size doesn’t fit all when it comes to finance. Local accountants understand this perfectly. They tailor their services to meet your unique needs, whether you’re an individual seeking tax advice or a business aiming to streamline operations for higher profitability.

Maximizing Tax Efficiency

Taxes can be a significant burden if not managed efficiently. Local accountants in Oldham City are your tax wizards. They employ legitimate strategies to minimize your tax liability, ensuring that you keep more of your hard-earned money.

Financial Health Check

Think of accountants as your financial doctors. They conduct regular check-ups on your financial health, identifying areas of improvement and prescribing remedies to ensure your financial well-being.

Strategic Financial Planning

Success in business hinges on sound financial planning. Local accountants help you chart a course for your financial future. They assist in setting achievable financial goals and crafting strategies to reach them.

Compliance Made Easy

Navigating the complex world of financial regulations can be a daunting task. Local accountants keep you on the right side of the law. They ensure that your financial transactions are compliant, avoiding any legal pitfalls.

The Human Touch

In this digital age, the personal touch can sometimes be lost. However, local accountants bring a touch of humanity to your financial dealings. They are always ready to answer your questions, address your concerns, and provide guidance with empathy.

Invest in Success

In conclusion, Oldham City accountants are not just financial professionals; they are your partners in success. Their expertise, personalized approach, and commitment to your financial well-being make them invaluable assets on your journey to prosperity.

So, if you’re looking to unlock the full potential of your finances and achieve your goals, don’t hesitate to reach out to the one of best Oldham accountants service providers here. With them by your side, you’re not just managing your finances; you’re securing your future.

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Trustworthy Accountant Partner

Why Having a Trustworthy Accountant Partner is Crucial?


In the dynamic world of finance, having trustworthy accountants by your side is crucial. When it comes to Oldham, Manchester you need professionals who not only understand the local financial landscape but can also provide tailored solutions. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the world of accounting which is crucial for business growth. We’ll cover everything you need to know to make informed decisions about your financial needs.

Accountants are Your Trusted Financial Partners

Accountants play a pivotal role in the financial well-being of individuals and businesses alike. Here, we delve into the reasons why having the right accountant is essential.

Expertise Matters

Having the right expertise in financial matters can make all the difference. Expert accountants are well-versed in local tax laws, regulations, and financial trends. They use this knowledge to help you maximize your financial resources and make informed decisions.

Personalized Services

One size does not fit all when it comes to financial planning. Accountants offer personalized services tailored to your unique needs. Whether you’re an individual looking for tax assistance or a business seeking financial management, they’ve got you covered.

Accounting for Small Businesses

Small businesses in Oldham often face unique financial challenges. Local accountants specializing in this area can provide valuable insights and strategies to help your business thrive.

Why Choosing the Right Accountants is Essential?

Choosing the right accountant can be a game-changer for your financial success. Here’s why local accountants stand out:

Local Knowledge

Local accountants in Oldham have a deep understanding of the local economic landscape. They use this knowledge to your advantage, ensuring you get the best financial advice tailored to the region.

Compliance Assurance

Tax laws and regulations can be complex. Accountants ensure that you remain compliant, avoiding costly penalties and audits.

Savings Maximization

Their expertise helps you identify opportunities for savings and investments, ultimately growing your wealth.


When it comes to your financial well-being, having local accountants in Oldham as your trusted partners can make a world of difference. Their local expertise, personalized services, and commitment to your financial success set them apart. Don’t hesitate to reach out to these professionals for all your financial needs in Oldham.

Remember, your financial future is in your hands, and with the right accountants in Oldham, you’re in good hands.

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Affordable Accountants in Oldham

How to Find Affordable Accountants in Oldham, Manchester


When it comes to managing the finances of your small business in Oldham, Manchester, finding the right accountant can be a game-changer. In this article, we’ll explore the world of Cheap accountants in Oldham, Manchester and why hiring a Cheap accountant for small business is a smart move for entrepreneurs looking to optimize their financial operations.

The Importance of Hiring an Accountant

Running a small business involves juggling various responsibilities, and managing finances is no small feat. That’s where a professional accountant can make all the difference. Not only do they help you keep your financial records in order, but they also provide valuable insights for making informed decisions.

Factors to Consider When Choosing an Accountant

Before we dive into affordable accounting services, it’s crucial to understand the factors you should consider when selecting an accountant. Your choice should align with your business’s specific needs and budget.

Affordable Accounting Services in Oldham, Manchester

Finding Budget-Friendly Accountants

In Oldham, Manchester, there’s no shortage of accounting firms and professionals. But how can you find a cheap accountant without compromising on quality?

Comparing Price Quotes

One effective approach is to request price quotes from several accountants. This will allow you to compare rates and services to find the best fit for your budget.

Negotiating Payment Plans

Additionally, consider negotiating payment plans with your chosen accountant. Many professionals are willing to work with small businesses to ensure affordability.

Benefits of Hiring a Cheap Accountant for Small Businesses

Expert Financial Guidance

A budget-friendly accountant doesn’t mean subpar services. They can offer expert financial guidance to help your small business thrive.

Cost Savings

Contrary to the misconception that accountants are an added expense, their services can result in significant cost savings by optimizing your tax strategy and identifying areas for financial improvement.

Compliance with Tax Regulations

Navigating tax regulations can be daunting, but a cheap accountant will ensure your business stays compliant and avoids penalties.


Outsourcing your financial tasks to a professional accountant frees up your time to focus on growing your business and serving your customers.

How to Identify a Reliable and Affordable Accountant

To make the most of your investment, it’s essential to choose a reliable and affordable accountant. Here are some tips:

Credentials and Qualifications

Ensure your accountant holds the necessary credentials and qualifications, such as being a certified public accountant (CPA).

Experience and Industry Knowledge

Look for an accountant with experience in your industry. They will better understand your unique financial challenges.

Client Reviews and References

Don’t hesitate to ask for client reviews and references. This will give you insights into the accountant’s track record and reputation.


In conclusion, finding Cheap accountants in Oldham, Manchester and hiring a Cheap accountant for small business is a crucial step towards financial success. By considering the factors mentioned in this article and conducting thorough research, you can secure affordable accounting services that benefit your business’s bottom line.

Pointax Accountants is of one the cheap accountants for small businesses that is offering affordable accounting services for small businesses in Oldham and Manchester. Don’t let financial concerns hold you back—invest in a budget-friendly accountant today with Pointax.

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